Part 2.3: Getting started with RabbitMQ and Python

Part 2.3 of RabbitMQ for beginners explains how to get started with RabbitMQ and Python.

This tutorial follow the scenario used in the previous article, Part 1: RabbitMQ for beginners - What is RabbitMQ? where a web application allows users to enter user information into a web site. The web site will handle the information and generate a PDF and email it back to the user. Generating the PDF and sending the email will in this scenario take several seconds. If you are not familiar with RabbitMQ and message queueing, I would recommend you to read RabbitMQ for beginners - what is RabbitMQ? before starting with this guide.

A you tube video describing the setup, Getting Started with RabbitMQ and CloudAMQP: Python & Pika, can be found on the bottom of this page.

RabbitMQ Python

Getting started with RabbitMQ and Python

Start by downloading the client-library for Python. The recommended library for Python is Pika. Put pika==0.11.0 in your requirement.txt file.

You need a RabbitMQ instance to get started. Read about how to set up an instance here.

When running the full code given, a connection will be established between the RabbiMQ instance and your application. Queues and exchanges will be declared and created if they do not already exist and finally a message will be published. The consumer subscribes to the queue, and the messages are handled one by one and sent to the PDF processing method.

A default exchange, identify by the empty string ("") will be used. The default exchange means that messages are routed to the queue with the name specified by routing_key, if it exists. (The default exchange is a direct exchange with no name)

RabbitMQ Exchange Python

Full code

# example_publisher.py
import pika, os, logging
logging.basicConfig()

# Parse CLODUAMQP_URL (fallback to localhost)
url = os.environ.get('CLOUDAMQP_URL', 'amqp://guest:guest@localhost/%2f')
params = pika.URLParameters(url)
params.socket_timeout = 5

connection = pika.BlockingConnection(params) # Connect to CloudAMQP
channel = connection.channel() # start a channel
channel.queue_declare(queue='pdfprocess') # Declare a queue
# send a message

channel.basic_publish(exchange='', routing_key='pdfprocess', body='User information')
print ("[x] Message sent to consumer")
connection.close()

# example_consumer.py
import pika, os, time

def pdf_process_function(msg):
  print(" PDF processing")
  print(" Received %r" % msg)

  time.sleep(5) # delays for 5 seconds
  print(" PDF processing finished");
  return;

# Access the CLODUAMQP_URL environment variable and parse it (fallback to localhost)
url = os.environ.get('CLOUDAMQP_URL', 'amqp://guest:guest@localhost:5672/%2f')
params = pika.URLParameters(url)
connection = pika.BlockingConnection(params)
channel = connection.channel() # start a channel
channel.queue_declare(queue='pdfprocess') # Declare a queue

# create a function which is called on incoming messages
def callback(ch, method, properties, body):
  pdf_process_function(body)

# set up subscription on the queue
channel.basic_consume(callback,
  queue='pdfprocess',
  no_ack=True)

# start consuming (blocks)
channel.start_consuming()
connection.close()

Tutorial source code - Publisher

# example_consumer.py
import pika, os, logging

# Parse CLODUAMQP_URL (fallback to localhost)
url = os.environ.get('CLOUDAMQP_URL', 'amqp://guest:guest@localhost/%2f')
params = pika.URLParameters(url)
params.socket_timeout = 5

Load client library and set up configuration parameters. The DEFAULT_SOCKET_TIMEOUT is set to 0.25s, we would recommend to raise this parameter to about 5s to avoid connection timeout, params.socket_timeout = 5 Other connection parameter options for Pika can be found here: Connection Parameters.

Set up a connection

connection = pika.BlockingConnection(params) # Connect to CloudAMQP

pika.BlockingConnection establishes a connection with the RabbitMQ server.

Start a channel

channel = connection.channel()

connection.channel create a channel in the TCP connection.

Declare a queue

channel.queue_declare(queue='pdfprocess') # Declare a queue

channel.queue_declare creates a queue to which the message will be delivered. The queue will be given the name pdfprocess.

Publish a message

channel.basic_publish(exchange='', routing_key='pdfprocess', body='User information')
print("[x] Message sent to consumer")

channel.basic_publish publish the message to the channel with the given exchange, routing key and body. A default exchange, identify by the empty string ("") will be used. The default exchange means that messages are routed to the queue with the name specified by routing_key, if it exists. (The default exchange is a direct exchange with no name).

Close the connection

connection.close()

The connection will be closed after the message has been published.

Consumer

Worker function

def pdf_process_function(msg):
  print(" PDF processing")
  print(" Received %r" % msg)

  time.sleep(5) # delays for 5 seconds
  print(" PDF processing finished");
  return;

pdf_process_function is a todo-function. It will sleep for 5 seconds to simulate the PDF-creation.

Function called for incoming messages

# create a function which is called on incoming messages
def callback(ch, method, properties, body):
  pdf_process_function(body)

The callback function will be called on every message received from the queue. The function will call a function that simulate the PDF-processing.

#set up subscription on the queue
channel.basic_consume(callback,
  queue='pdfprocess',
  no_ack=True)

basic_consume binds messages to the consumer callback function.

channel.start_consuming() # start consuming (blocks)
connection.close()

start_consuming starts to consume messages from the queue.

More information about Python and CloudAMQP can be found here. You can find information about Python Celery here.

Getting Started with RabbitMQ and CloudAMQP: Python & Pika

Please email us at contact@cloudamqp.com if you have any suggestions or feedback.